Coffee! Be it your morning staple, a go-to for something warm or even the light at the end of a sleepy tunnel, coffee is no doubt an MVP in our eyes. If you’ve looked at a package that says 100% Arabica and been confused, here’s a quick rundown of what you should know about coffee.

There are many types of coffee beans, but the two primary types of coffee beans are the Arabica and the Robusta. Then there’s also the rarest of the beans, Liberica. So what’s the difference?

Types of Coffee Beans

#1. Arabica 

  • Consists of 60 to 70 percent of the coffee produced globally, it is the most common and marketed type of coffee bean.
  • Nescafe uses Arabica from Colombia.
  • Superior taste with low acidity.
  • Usually exported from Indonesia, Colombia, Ethiopia and Uganda.
  • Flavour notes of chocolate and sugar – sweeter taste.

#2. Robusta

  • Second most popular coffee bean.
  • Mostly used in espresso blends.
  • Produce better crema than Arabica
  • Packs more caffeine.
  • Usually exported from Vietnam, India, and Uganda.
  • Flavour notes of grain and nut – stronger taste.

#3. Liberica

(Source: theprimadonnalife)

  • Rarest type of coffee bean.
  • Larger and irregular shaped beans.
  • Adds dimension to coffee blends.
  • Usually exported from Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia.
  • Flavour notes of wood – full-bodied taste.

The next thing to get familiar with when it comes to beans are their roast levels!

Roasting consists of a process where the beans are brought to very high temperatures which causes chemical changes to occur. When they reach the level of roast intended, they are quickly cooled off to stop the process. Roasting them also makes them smell like coffee, and weigh less because the moisture has been roasted out. 

Roast Levels

(Source: Crema.co)

#1. Light Roast

  • Internal temperature between 176°C to 205°C
  • Beans are light brown, no oil on beans surface
  • Toasted grain taste, pronounced acidity
  • Retains most caffeine


#2. Medium Roast

    • Internal temperature between 210°C to 220°C
    • Beans are medium chocolate brown colour, no oil on beans surface
    • More balanced flavour and aroma, slightly sweet, less acidic
    • Moderately retains caffeine

#3. Dark Roast

  • Internal temperature between 225°C to 248°C
  • Beans are richer and darker colour, sheen of oil on the surface
  • Origin flavours are usually dulled by the roasting
  • Taste strong, smokey and sometimes spicy
  • Caffeine is substantially decreased

Now that you know the facts, talk to your local barista and try out different blends! We recommend starting off by getting familiar with Arabica beans. Two Sons Coffee has a wide range of speciality high-grade Arabica beans sourced from across the world, including the UK, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia and even local roasters. 


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Are you an Arabica OG or you like to blend your beans with Robusta or Liberica?

What’s your roasting preference? Tell us in the comments below!